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Types of electric motors


22.06.2018

The electric motor plays a key role in virtually all industrial machinery. It converts electrical force into mechanical one. In a result its technical characteristics determine the performance of the equipment. The main parameters of any engine are such characteristics as: number of revolutions; type of network; power; voltage.

An equally important indicator is the energy and mass-dimension parameter. If we compare the heat and electric motors with the same power, the second has a number of advantages. For example, it is much more compact, and therefore more ergonomic and practical in installation, operation and maintenance. The next advantage is the absence of vapors and decomposition products, and, consequently, the engine does not pollute the environment.

Electric motors are classified into two main types:

  • DC motors;
  • AC motors.

DC motors

This type is used where it is necessary to create an adjustable electric drive with high dynamics. The performance of this engine, consist in a uniform rotation and high overload capacity. It is built into drilling equipment, excavator systems and other electric power units. Also, the motor is used in paper machines, polymer machines and other industrial equipment.

Depending on how the brush-collector unit is arranged, an electric motor of this type can be:

  • collector motors;
  • commutatorless motors.

The collector engine can be excited by means of an electromagnet or be self-excited. Direct current drives include servo motors. Such high-tech devices use negative feedback and are characterized by high rotor speed, which is controlled through computer software.

AC motors

AC motors have different operational and design parameters that divide their other types. For example, on the speed with which the rotor rotates, it depends on which subspecies the engine belongs to: asynchronous or synchronous.

In synchronous motors, the rotor rotates at the same speed as the magnetic field of the supply current. This subspecies is used for the production of high-power plants. In addition, there is another subset of synchronous motors - stepper drives. They differ in the strictly defined position of the rotor in space, fixed by the supply of electricity to the stator winding. Such engines are very productive and compact, they are used for almost all office equipment. An important indicator is the number of phases, so the motor can be single-phase, two, three or multiphase.
Drives with alternating current are more in demand than DC motors. They are used in industrial sectors and in domestic conditions. This kind is appreciated for its simplicity of construction and high reliability. In everyday life, motors with alternating current, we can meet in the washing machine, kitchen hood, etc. As for industrial spheres, they are used in machine tools, compressors, pneumatic and hydraulic pumps, fans.

Linear motors

There is one more kind, about which it is necessary to say separately - linear electric motors. The movement of the stator and rotor occurs in a straight line relative to each other. They are widely used in equipment, in the work of which, the action of the working mechanism occurs reciprocating and translational motion.

The introduction of such an engine into the industry practically completely eliminates the mechanical type of transmission, and most importantly extends the operational life of the equipment, increases the reliability and economy of its operation.

The motor often drives all the industrial process, and accordingly its stop means the stoppage of the entire industrial facility. Our range includes electric motors ABB, Siemens and other leading manufacturers.

You can buy an AC or DC electric motor in the Eltra Trade Company. We guarantee professional help in choosing the optimal model that meets specific tasks, as well as the high quality of each product.